In December, 17 an interesting paper by Miller et al. was published in the Wildlife Society Bulletin about how effective different techniques (lethal and non-lethal) are to reduce livestock depredation by large carnivores.
Although the study dealt with large carnivores such as wolves and tigers, the lessons learnt could be useful for medium-sized carnivores such as black-backed jackals and caracals, also predating on livestock.
The study points out that there is little consensus about what methods are the most useful and under what circumstances, but also shows that preventive husbandry and deterrents seem to work the best in reducing livestock losses. However, the methods show wide variability and more research is desperately needed on the efficiency of lethal predator control methods and human guarding of livestock.
For more information about this paper, please visit Berkeley News: http://news.berkeley.edu/2016/12/13/conservationists-widen-toolkit-for-predator-management/